Some adverse doctrinal implications of Tauhid -
the poisonous result of neo-Platonic and Aristotelian influence
Islam page


1. Panentheistic tendencies - The Creator and creation intermingled and confused
Unity of Existence (wahdat al-wujud)         Taken from Wikipedia

The first detailed formulation of "Unity of Existence" (wahdat al-wujud) is closely associated with Ibn Arabi. Widely different interpretations of the meaning of the "Unity of Existence" have been proposed throughout the centuries by critics, defenders, and Western scholars. Ibn Arabi himself didn't use the term "Unity of Existence" and similar statements had been made by those before him. For example, according to al-Ghazali "There is nothing in wujud [existence] except God...Wujud [Existence] only belongs to the Real One". Ghazali explains that the fruit of spiritual ascent of the Sufi is to "witness that there is no existence in the world save God and that 'All things are perishing except his face' (Qur'an 28:88)" [35][36]

Another text which strongly suggests a confusion of Creator with His creation is:

Surat Al Baqarah 2:115
وَلِلَّهِ الْمَشْرِقُ وَالْمَغْرِبُ ۚ فَأَيْنَمَا تُوَلُّوا فَثَمَّ وَجْهُ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
PICKTHAL: Unto Allah belong the East and the West, and whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah's Countenance. Lo! Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.

Many authors consider being or existence to be the proper designation for the reality of God. While all Muslims believe the reality of God to be one, critics hold that the term "existence" (wujud) is also used for the existence of things in this world and that the doctrine blurs the distinction between the existence of the creator and that of the creation. Defenders argued that Ibn Arabi and his followers are offering a "subtle metaphysics following the line of the Asharite formula: “The attributes are neither God nor other than God.” God’s “signs” (ayat) and “traces” (athar)—the creatures—are neither the same as God nor different from him, because God must be understood as both absent and present, both transcendent and immanent.

Biblical revelation however consistently maintains a razor sharp distinction:
'Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature more than the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.' Rom.1.25

2. An inadequate view of key Divine Attributes
'If I say that God is knowing, I merely confirm the divine essence and deny in it all ignorance. If I say that God is powerful, living and so forth, I am only confirming the divine essence and denying in it all powerlessness, mortality and so forth'  Al Nazzam al-Ash'ari , 484 Maqalat al-islamiyyin (Islamic Dogmas) cited here  in ed. H. Ritter, Wiesbaden, 2nd edn, 1963.

Surat Al Hadid 57:3,4
هُوَ الْأَوَّلُ وَالْآخِرُ وَالظَّاهِرُ وَالْبَاطِنُ ۖ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ ۚ يَعْلَمُ مَا يَلِجُ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَمَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْهَا وَمَا يَنزِلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ وَمَا يَعْرُجُ فِيهَا ۖ وَهُوَ مَعَكُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ

PICKTHAL: He is the First and the Last, and the Outward and the Inward; and He is Knower of all things.
He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days; then He mounted the Throne. He knoweth all that entereth the earth and all that emergeth therefrom and all that cometh down from the sky and all that ascendeth therein; and He is with you wheresoever ye may be. And Allah is Seer of what ye do.

Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (May Allah be pleased with him) narrated that Allah's Messenger (May the
peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said:
"Musa (Moses) (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him) said: 'O my Rabb, teach
me something through which I can remember You and supplicate to You.' Allah answered: 'Say,
O Musa, La ilaha ilIa-Allah'. Musa said: 'O my Rabb, all your slaves say these words'. Allah said:
'O Musa, if the seven heavens and all they contain other than Me1 (Ghairy) and the seven earths
as well, were all put in one side of a scale and La ilaha ilIa-Allah put in the other the latter would
overweigh them.'"

Contrast with Biblical concepts of Omniscience, Divine perception, Omnipresence, Omnipotence diluted.

3. Injuring Divine personality

4.  Undermining Divine relationality

5. The moral abyss between God and man misperceived as metaphysical

Muslim reports that Khawlah bint Hakim ((May Allah be pleased with him)) said, I heard
Allah's (May the peace and blessing of Allah be upon him)
"Whoever goes into a dwelling and says (while entering it): 'I seek refuge in Allah's perfect
words from the evil (of those creatures) which He created', no harm shall befall him until he
departs from that place." (Muslim)

Ibn Mas'ud ((May Allah be pleased with him)) said:
"To swear by Allah while lying is more loved by me than to swear by other than Him while
speaking truth."

With reference to the above quoted verse, Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) said:
"Al-Andad means Shirk. It is as inconspicuous as a black ant moving (crawling) on a black
stone in the darkness of night. It is to swear: 'by Allah and by your life' and 'by my life'. It is also
to say: 'Had there not been this little dog or the duck in the house, the thief would have entered.'
Or, like the statement of a man to his companion: 'By Allah's and yours will,..' or 'Had it not been
Allah and so-and-so', etc. Do not mention anybody with Allah because all of it is Shirk." [It has
been reported by Ibn Abi Hatim]

6. Grounds of a dangerously ill founded presumption of His favour

"Indeed Allah has forbidden for Hell the person who testifies: 'There is nothing worthy of
worship in truth (no true God) but Allah', seeking thereby nothing but Allah's Face (pleasure)." (Bukhari 8.76.431).

"Whoever testifies that there is nothing worthy of worship in truth (no God) except Allah
Alone, Who is without (peer or) partner, and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and
that 'Iesa (Jesus) is the slave of Allah, His Messenger, and His Word which He bestowed in
Maryam (Mary) and a spirit (created) from Him, and that Paradise & Hell-fire are realities, Allah
will admit him into Paradise, whatever his deeds might be." (Sahih Al-Bukhari, Hadith No. 3252)

 Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble. (James.2.19
For as the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without works is dead also. (James 2.26)

7. Undermining causality - as examined in Reilly's excellent work, 'The closing of the Muslim mind'
By asserting that God's activity in the world is unmediated and always direct - so that the appearance of natural law and even independent existence are illusory - rendering any exploration of causality futile.


Islam page
Some useful comments on Bible teaching about the Godhead of Father, Son and Holy Spirit for Muslims